Toxicology | Fastweb

Toxicology

Toxicology (from the Greek words τοξικός - toxicos "poisonous" and logos) is a branch of biology, chemistry, and medicine concerned with the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. It is the study of symptoms, mechanisms, treatments and detection of poisoning, especially the poisoning of people.

Dioscorides, a Greek physician in the court of the Roman emperor Nero, made the first attempt to classify plants according to their toxic and therapeutic effect.Ibn Wahshiya wrote the Book on Poisons in the 9th or 10th century.

Mathieu Orfila is considered to be the modern father of toxicology, having given the subject its first formal treatment in 1813 in his Traité des poisons, also called Toxicologie générale.

In 1850 Jean Stas gave the evidence that the Belgian Count Hypolyte Visart de Bocarmé killed his brother-in-law by poisoning with nicotine

Theophrastus Phillipus Auroleus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493–1541) (also referred to as Paracelsus, from his belief that his studies were above or beyond the work of Celsus - a Roman physician from the first century) is also considered "the father" of toxicology. He is credited with the classic toxicology maxim, "Alle Dinge sind Gift und nichts ist ohne Gift; allein die Dosis macht, dass ein Ding kein Gift ist." which translates as, "All things are poison and nothing is without poison; only the dose makes a thing not a poison." This is often condensed to: "The dose makes the poison" or in Latin "Sola dosis facit venenum".

The relationship between dose and its effects on the exposed organism is of high significance in toxicology. The chief criterion regarding the toxicity of a chemical is the dose, i.e. the amount of exposure to the substance. All substances are toxic under the right conditions. The term LD50 refers to the dose of a toxic substance that kills 50 percent of a test population (typically rats or other surrogates when the test concerns human toxicity). LD50 estimations in animals are no longer required for regulatory submissions as a part of pre-clinical development package.[citation needed]

The conventional relationship (more exposure equals higher risk) has been challenged in the study of endocrine disruptors.

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Matching Toxicology Colleges

University of California-Berkeley
Four or more years; Public; $34,098 average out-state tuition; $11,220 average in-state tuition
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus
Four or more years; Public; $27,206 average out-state tuition; $15,124 average in-state tuition
University of Louisiana-Monroe
Four or more years; Public; $11,424 average out-state tuition; $3,478 average in-state tuition
St John's University-New York
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $33,235 average out-state tuition; $33,235 average in-state tuition
Texas Tech University
Four or more years; Public; $12,211 average out-state tuition; $4,699 average in-state tuition
University of Rochester
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $41,040 average out-state tuition; $41,040 average in-state tuition
North Carolina State University at Raleigh
Four or more years; Public; $17,988 average out-state tuition; $5,153 average in-state tuition

Scholarships for Toxicology Majors

name award deadline

HBCU Battle of the Brains

HBCU Battle of the Brains, LLC.

Up to $25,000 February 23, 2019 See Details

HBCU Battle of the Brains

HBCU Battle of the Brains, LLC.

award

Up to $25,000

deadline

February 23, 2019
See Details

Ford Foundation Predoctoral Diversity Fellowship

National Research Council

$24,000 January 08, 2019 See Details

Ford Foundation Predoctoral Diversity Fellowship

National Research Council

award

$24,000

deadline

January 08, 2019
See Details

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence In Education Foundation

Up to $7,500 January 31, 2019 See Details

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence In Education Foundation

award

Up to $7,500

deadline

January 31, 2019
See Details

ACS Scholars Program

American Chemical Society

Up to $5,000 March 01, 2019 See Details

ACS Scholars Program

American Chemical Society

award

Up to $5,000

deadline

March 01, 2019
See Details

APIASF/Southern California Edison Scholarship

Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund

$2,500 January 10, 2019 See Details

APIASF/Southern California Edison Scholarship

Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund

award

$2,500

deadline

January 10, 2019
See Details

Josef Princ Memorial Scholarship

Clark County Public Education Foundation

$2,000 January 31, 2019 See Details

Josef Princ Memorial Scholarship

Clark County Public Education Foundation

award

$2,000

deadline

January 31, 2019
See Details

Edwin F. Wiegand Science and Technology Scholarship

Clark County Public Education Foundation

$1,250 January 31, 2019 See Details

Edwin F. Wiegand Science and Technology Scholarship

Clark County Public Education Foundation

award

$1,250

deadline

January 31, 2019
See Details

Riley Thomas Greer Scholarship

Western Piedmont Community College

$1,000 June 01, 2019 See Details

Riley Thomas Greer Scholarship

Western Piedmont Community College

award

$1,000

deadline

June 01, 2019
See Details

College of Arts and Sciences Alumni Excellence Award - MSU, Billings

Montana State University-Billings

$500 February 01, 2019 See Details

College of Arts and Sciences Alumni Excellence Award - MSU, Billings

Montana State University-Billings

award

$500

deadline

February 01, 2019
See Details

Roberta Mitchell Jansen Scholarship

Oregon State University - College of Agricultural Sciences

$500 February 15, 2019 See Details

Roberta Mitchell Jansen Scholarship

Oregon State University - College of Agricultural Sciences

award

$500

deadline

February 15, 2019
See Details