Genetics | Fastweb

Genetics

Genetics (from Ancient Greek γενετικός genetikos, "genitive" and that from γένεσις genesis, "origin"), a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms.

Genetics deals with the molecular structure and function of genes, with gene behavior in the context of a cell or organism (e.g. dominance and epigenetics), with patterns of inheritance from parent to offspring, and with gene distribution, variation and change in populations. Given that genes are universal to living organisms, genetics can be applied to the study of all living systems, from viruses and bacteria, through plants (especially crops) and domestic animals, to humans (as in medical genetics).

The fact that living things inherit traits from their parents has been used since prehistoric times to improve crop plants and animals through selective breeding. However, the modern science of genetics, which seeks to understand the process of inheritance, only began with the work of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Although he did not know the physical basis for heredity, Mendel observed that organisms inherit traits via discrete units of inheritance, which are now called genes.

Genes correspond to regions within DNA, a molecule composed of a chain of four different types of nucleotides—the sequence of these nucleotides is the genetic information organisms inherit. DNA naturally occurs in a double stranded form, with nucleotides on each strand complementary to each other. Each strand can act as a template for creating a new partner strand. This is the physical method for making copies of genes that can be inherited.

The sequence of nucleotides in a gene is translated by cells to produce a chain of amino acids, creating proteins—the order of amino acids in a protein corresponds to the order of nucleotides in the gene. This relationship between nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence is known as the genetic code. The amino acids in a protein determine how it folds into a three-dimensional shape; this structure is, in turn, responsible for the protein's function. Proteins carry out almost all the functions needed for cells to live. A change to the DNA in a gene can change a protein's amino acids, changing its shape and function: this can have a dramatic effect in the cell and on the organism as a whole.

Although genetics plays a large role in the appearance and behavior of organisms, it is the combination of genetics with what an organism experiences that determines the ultimate outcome. For example, while genes play a role in determining an organism's size, the nutrition and health it experiences after inception also have a large effect.

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Matching Genetics Colleges

University of California-Davis
Four or more years; Public; $34,098 average out-state tuition; $11,220 average in-state tuition
University of Wisconsin-Madison
Four or more years; Public; $24,342 average out-state tuition; $8,592 average in-state tuition
Iowa State University
Four or more years; Public; $18,280 average out-state tuition; $6,408 average in-state tuition
Washington State University
Four or more years; Public; $20,652 average out-state tuition; $9,374 average in-state tuition
University of Georgia
Four or more years; Public; $24,411 average out-state tuition; $6,676 average in-state tuition
University of Connecticut
Four or more years; Public; $25,152 average out-state tuition; $8,256 average in-state tuition
North Carolina State University at Raleigh
Four or more years; Public; $17,988 average out-state tuition; $5,153 average in-state tuition

Scholarships for Genetics Majors

name award deadline

HBCU Battle of the Brains

HBCU Battle of the Brains, LLC.

Up to $25,000 February 23, 2019 See Details

HBCU Battle of the Brains

HBCU Battle of the Brains, LLC.

award

Up to $25,000

deadline

February 23, 2019
See Details

Ford Foundation Predoctoral Diversity Fellowship

National Research Council

$24,000 January 08, 2019 See Details

Ford Foundation Predoctoral Diversity Fellowship

National Research Council

award

$24,000

deadline

January 08, 2019
See Details

Henry David Thoreau Scholarship

Henry David Thoreau Foundation

Up to $20,000 February 01, 2019 See Details

Henry David Thoreau Scholarship

Henry David Thoreau Foundation

award

Up to $20,000

deadline

February 01, 2019
See Details

Dr. Gary M. Moore Great Plan Scholarship

Oklahoma City Community Foundation

$20,000 February 01, 2019 See Details

Dr. Gary M. Moore Great Plan Scholarship

Oklahoma City Community Foundation

award

$20,000

deadline

February 01, 2019
See Details

Garden Club of America Fellowship in Ecological Restoration

Garden Club of America

$8,000 December 31, 2018 See Details

Garden Club of America Fellowship in Ecological Restoration

Garden Club of America

award

$8,000

deadline

December 31, 2018
See Details

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence In Education Foundation

Up to $7,500 January 31, 2019 See Details

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence In Education Foundation

award

Up to $7,500

deadline

January 31, 2019
See Details

Udall Undergraduate Scholarship

Udall Foundation

Up to $7,000 March 07, 2019 See Details

Udall Undergraduate Scholarship

Udall Foundation

award

Up to $7,000

deadline

March 07, 2019
See Details

PERC Graduate Fellowship

Property and Environment Research Center

$6,750 April 01, 2019 See Details

PERC Graduate Fellowship

Property and Environment Research Center

award

$6,750

deadline

April 01, 2019
See Details

Marjorie Skiff Rose Scholarship

University of Colorado Boulder

$6,640 March 06, 2019 See Details

Marjorie Skiff Rose Scholarship

University of Colorado Boulder

award

$6,640

deadline

March 06, 2019
See Details

Leopold and Elizabeth Marmet Scholarship

Greater Kanawha Valley Foundation

$5,000 January 15, 2019 See Details

Leopold and Elizabeth Marmet Scholarship

Greater Kanawha Valley Foundation

award

$5,000

deadline

January 15, 2019
See Details