Pharmacology | Fastweb

Pharmacology

Pharmacology (from Greek φάρμακον, pharmakon, "poison in classic Greek; drug in modern Greek"; and -λογία, "Study of" -logia) is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. If substances have medicinal properties, they are considered pharmaceuticals. The field encompasses drug composition and properties, interactions, toxicology, therapy, and medical applications and antipathogenic capabilities. The two main areas of pharmacology are pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. The former studies the effects of the drugs on biological systems, and the latter the effects of biological systems on the drugs. In broad terms, pharmacodynamics discusses the interactions of chemicals with biological receptors, and pharmacokinetics discusses the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of chemicals from the biological systems. Pharmacology is not synonymous with pharmacy and the two terms are frequently confused. Pharmacology deals with how drugs interact within biological systems to affect function. It is the study of drugs, of the reactions of the body and drug on each other, the sources of drugs, their nature, and their properties. In contrast, pharmacy is a biomedical science concerned with preparation, dispensing, dosage, and the safe and effective use of medicines.

Dioscorides' De Materia Medica is often said to be the oldest and most valuable work in the history of pharmacology. The origins of clinical pharmacology date back to the Middle Ages in Avicenna's The Canon of Medicine, Peter of Spain's Commentary on Isaac, and John of St Amand's Commentary on the Antedotary of Nicholas. Clinical pharmacology owes much of its foundation to the work of William Withering. Pharmacology as a scientific discipline did not further advance until the mid-19th century amid the great biomedical resurgence of that period. Before the second half of the nineteenth century, the remarkable potency and specificity of the actions of drugs such as morphine, quinine and digitalis were explained vaguely and with reference to extraordinary chemical powers and affinities to certain organs or tissues. The first pharmacology department was set up by Rudolf Buchheim in 1847, in recognition of the need to understand how therapeutic drugs and poisons produced their effects.

Early pharmacologists focused on natural substances, mainly plant extracts. Pharmacology developed in the 19th century as a biomedical science that applied the principles of scientific experimentation to therapeutic contexts.

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Matching Pharmacology Colleges

Tulane University of Louisiana
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $39,850 average out-state tuition; $39,850 average in-state tuition
University of California-Santa Barbara
Four or more years; Public; $34,098 average out-state tuition; $11,220 average in-state tuition
Stony Brook University
Four or more years; Public; $14,720 average out-state tuition; $5,270 average in-state tuition
The University of Tennessee
Four or more years; Public; $24,066 average out-state tuition; $7,224 average in-state tuition
Georgetown University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $40,920 average out-state tuition; $40,920 average in-state tuition
Thomas Jefferson University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $31,499 average out-state tuition; $31,499 average in-state tuition
Columbia University in the City of New York
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $43,088 average out-state tuition; $43,088 average in-state tuition

Scholarships for Pharmacology Majors

name award deadline

HBCU Battle of the Brains

HBCU Battle of the Brains, LLC.

Up to $25,000 February 23, 2019 See Details

HBCU Battle of the Brains

HBCU Battle of the Brains, LLC.

award

Up to $25,000

deadline

February 23, 2019
See Details

Ford Foundation Predoctoral Diversity Fellowship

National Research Council

$24,000 January 08, 2019 See Details

Ford Foundation Predoctoral Diversity Fellowship

National Research Council

award

$24,000

deadline

January 08, 2019
See Details

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence In Education Foundation

Up to $7,500 January 31, 2019 See Details

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship

Barry M. Goldwater Scholarship and Excellence In Education Foundation

award

Up to $7,500

deadline

January 31, 2019
See Details

APIASF/Target Scholarship

Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund

$2,500 January 10, 2019 See Details

APIASF/Target Scholarship

Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund

award

$2,500

deadline

January 10, 2019
See Details

APIASF/Southern California Edison Scholarship

Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund

$2,500 January 10, 2019 See Details

APIASF/Southern California Edison Scholarship

Asian and Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund

award

$2,500

deadline

January 10, 2019
See Details

Josef Princ Memorial Scholarship

Clark County Public Education Foundation

$2,000 January 31, 2019 See Details

Josef Princ Memorial Scholarship

Clark County Public Education Foundation

award

$2,000

deadline

January 31, 2019
See Details

Edwin F. Wiegand Science and Technology Scholarship

Clark County Public Education Foundation

$1,250 January 31, 2019 See Details

Edwin F. Wiegand Science and Technology Scholarship

Clark County Public Education Foundation

award

$1,250

deadline

January 31, 2019
See Details

Riley Thomas Greer Scholarship

Western Piedmont Community College

$1,000 June 01, 2019 See Details

Riley Thomas Greer Scholarship

Western Piedmont Community College

award

$1,000

deadline

June 01, 2019
See Details

College of Arts and Sciences Alumni Excellence Award - MSU, Billings

Montana State University-Billings

$500 February 01, 2019 See Details

College of Arts and Sciences Alumni Excellence Award - MSU, Billings

Montana State University-Billings

award

$500

deadline

February 01, 2019
See Details

John C. and Helen Voelker Scholarship

Montana State University-Billings

$225 February 01, 2019 See Details

John C. and Helen Voelker Scholarship

Montana State University-Billings

award

$225

deadline

February 01, 2019
See Details