Hebrew Language And Literature

Hebrew (/ˈhiːbruː/; עִבְרִית‎, Ivrit [ivˈʁit] (listen) or [ʕivˈɾit] (listen)) is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel, spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh.[note 1] The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

Hebrew had ceased to be an everyday spoken language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining since the aftermath of the Bar Kokhba revolt.[note 2] Aramaic and to a lesser extent Greek were already in use as international languages, especially among elites and immigrants. Hebrew survived into the medieval period as the language of Jewish liturgy, rabbinic literature, intra-Jewish commerce, and poetry. Then, in the 19th century, it was revived as a spoken and literary language. It became the lingua franca of Palestine's Jews, and subsequently of the State of Israel. According to Ethnologue, in 1998, it was the language of 5 million people worldwide. After Israel, the United States has the second largest Hebrew-speaking population, with 220,000 fluent speakers, mostly from Israel.

Modern Hebrew is the official language of the State of Israel, while premodern Hebrew is used for prayer or study in Jewish communities around the world today. The Samaritan dialect is also the liturgical tongue of the Samaritans, while modern Hebrew or Arabic is their vernacular. As a foreign language, it is studied mostly by Jews and students of Judaism and Israel, and by archaeologists and linguists specializing in the Middle East and its civilizations, as well as by theologians in Christian seminaries.

The Torah (the first five books), and most of the rest of the Hebrew Bible, is written in Biblical Hebrew, with much of its present form specifically in the dialect that scholars believe flourished around the 6th century BCE, around the time of the Babylonian captivity. For this reason, Hebrew has been referred to by Jews as Lashon Hakodesh (לשון הקדש), "the Holy Language", since ancient times.

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Matching Hebrew Language And Literature Colleges

New York University

Four or more years; Private not for profit; $47,942 average out-state tuition; $47,942 average in-state tuition

Ohio State University-Main Campus

Four or more years; Public; $28,822 average out-state tuition; $9,718 average in-state tuition

University of Michigan-Ann Arbor

Four or more years; Public; $48,814 average out-state tuition; $15,433 average in-state tuition

Yeshiva University

Four or more years; Private not for profit; $40,000 average out-state tuition; $40,000 average in-state tuition

CUNY Queens College

Four or more years; Public; $13,920 average out-state tuition; $6,530 average in-state tuition

University of Utah

Four or more years; Public; $26,940 average out-state tuition; $7,697 average in-state tuition

University of California-Los Angeles

Four or more years; Public; $39,516 average out-state tuition; $11,502 average in-state tuition

Scholarships for Hebrew Language And Literature Majors

Bullet name award deadline Link
 

Beinecke Scholarship Program

Beinecke Scholarship Program

$34,000 February 09, 2022 See Details
 

Beinecke Scholarship Program

Beinecke Scholarship Program

award

$34,000

deadline

February 09, 2022
See Details
 

Boren Fellowship

National Security Education Program

Up to $24,000 January 26, 2022 See Details
 

Boren Fellowship

National Security Education Program

award

Up to $24,000

deadline

January 26, 2022
See Details
 

Overseas Press Club Foundation Scholarship

Overseas Press Club Foundation

$3,000 December 01, 2021 See Details
 

Overseas Press Club Foundation Scholarship

Overseas Press Club Foundation

award

$3,000

deadline

December 01, 2021
See Details
 

AFCEA War Veterans Scholarships

Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA)

$2,500 November 30, 2021 See Details
 

AFCEA War Veterans Scholarships

Armed Forces Communications and Electronics Association (AFCEA)

award

$2,500

deadline

November 30, 2021
See Details
 

Sven Peterson Memorial Scholarship - UCSD

University of California, San Diego

$2,000 Varies See Details
 

Sven Peterson Memorial Scholarship - UCSD

University of California, San Diego

award

$2,000

deadline

Varies
See Details
 

Doug and Dianne Taylor Scholarship

University of Montana, Missoula - College of Arts and Sciences

$1,100 Varies See Details
 

Doug and Dianne Taylor Scholarship

University of Montana, Missoula - College of Arts and Sciences

award

$1,100

deadline

Varies
See Details
 

Michael Hodge Memorial Scholarship

Galveston College

$1,000 Varies See Details
 

Michael Hodge Memorial Scholarship

Galveston College

award

$1,000

deadline

Varies
See Details
 

Humanities & Social Sciences Tiger Athletic Foundation Scholarship

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, College of Arts and Science

$1,000 Varies See Details
 

Humanities & Social Sciences Tiger Athletic Foundation Scholarship

Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, College of Arts and Science

award

$1,000

deadline

Varies
See Details
 

John and Connie Sadler Scholarship

Oklahoma State University - College of Arts and Sciences

$700 Varies See Details
 

John and Connie Sadler Scholarship

Oklahoma State University - College of Arts and Sciences

award

$700

deadline

Varies
See Details
 

Laura S. and Chester W. Nortz Endowed Scholarship

Westminster College, Utah

$600 Varies See Details
 

Laura S. and Chester W. Nortz Endowed Scholarship

Westminster College, Utah

award

$600

deadline

Varies
See Details