Spanish Language And Literature | Fastweb

Spanish Language And Literature

Spanish literature generally refers to literature (Spanish poetry, prose, and drama) written in the Spanish language within the territory that presently constitutes the state of Spain. Its development coincides and frequently intersects with that of other literary traditions from regions within the same territory, particularly Catalan literature, Galician intersects as well with Latin, Jewish, and Arabic literary traditions of the Iberian peninsula. The literature of Spanish America is an important branch of Spanish literature, with its own particular characteristics dating back to the earliest years of Spain’s conquest of the Americas (see Latin American literature).

The Roman conquest and occupation of the Iberian peninsula beginning in the 3rd century BC brought a Latin culture to Spanish territories. The arrival of Muslim invaders in 711 CE brought the cultures of the Middle and Far East. In Medieval Spanish literature, the earliest recorded examples of a vernacular Romance-based literature mix Muslim, Jewish, and Christian culture. One of the notable works is the epic poem Cantar de Mio Cid, written in 1140. Spanish prose gained popularity in the mid-thirteenth century. Lyric poetry in the Middle Ages includes popular poems and the courtly poetry of the nobles. During the 15th century the pre-Renaissance occurred and literary production increased greatly. In the Renaissance important topics were poetry, religious literature, and prose. In the Baroque era of the 17th century important works were the prose of Francisco de Quevedo and Baltasar Gracián. A notable author was Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra, famous for his masterpiece Don Quixote de la Mancha.

In the Enlightenment era of the 18th century, notable works include the prose of Fray Benito Jerónimo Feijoo, Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos, and José Cadalso; the lyric of Juan Meléndez Valdés, Tomás de Iriarte and Félix María Samaniego), and the theater, with Leandro Fernández de Moratín, Ramón de la Cruz and Vicente García de la Huerta. In Romanticism (beginning of the 19th century) important topics are: the poetry of José de Espronceda and other poets; prose; the theater, with Ángel de Saavedra (Duke of Rivas), José Zorrilla, and other authors. In Realism (end of the 19th century), which is mixed with Naturalism, important topics are the novel, with Juan Valera, José María de Pereda, Benito Pérez Galdós, Emilia Pardo Bazán, Leopoldo Alas (Clarín), Armando Palacio Valdés, and Vicente Blasco Ibáñez; poetry, with Ramón de Campoamor, Gaspar Núñez de Arce, and other poets; the theater, with José Echegaray, Manuel Tamayo y Baus, and other dramatists; and the literary critics, emphasizing Menéndez Pelayo.

In Modernism several currents appear: Parnasianism, Symbolism, Futurism, and Creationism. The destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by the U.S. in 1898 provoked a crisis in Spain. A group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno, Pío Baroja, and José Martínez Ruiz (Azorín), made changes to literature's form and content. By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the First World War and of the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset—a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field. Leading voices include the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez, the academics and essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal, Gregorio Marañon, Manuel Azaña, Eugeni d'Ors, and Ortega y Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala, and Ramón Gómez de la Serna. Around 1920 a younger group of writers—mostly poets—began publishing works that from their beginnings revealed the extent to which younger artists were absorbing the literary experimentation of the writers of 1898 and 1914. Poets were closely tied to formal academia. Novelists such as Benjamín Jarnés, Rosa Chacel, Francisco Ayala, and Ramón J. Sender were equally experimental and academic.

The Spanish Civil War had a devastating impact on Spanish writing. Among the handful of civil war poets and writers, Miguel Hernández stands out. During the early dictatorship (1939–1955), literature followed dictator Francisco Franco's reactionary vision of a second Spanish golden age. By the mid-1950s, just as with the novel, a new generation which had only experienced the Spanish civil war in childhood was coming of age. By the early 1960s, Spanish authors moved towards a restless literary experimentation. When Franco died in 1975, the important work of establishing democracy had an immediate impact on Spanish letters. Over the next several years a wealth of young new writers, among them Juan José Millás, Rosa Montero, Javier Marías, Luis Mateo Díez, José María Merino, Félix de Azúa, Cristina Fernández Cubas, Enrique Vila-Matas, Carme Riera, and later Antonio Muñoz Molina and Almudena Grandes, would begin carving out a prominent place for themselves within the Spanish cultural field.

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Matching Spanish Language And Literature Colleges

University of Wisconsin-Madison
Four or more years; Public; $33,523 average out-state tuition; $9,273 average in-state tuition
Weber State University
Four or more years; Public; $14,321 average out-state tuition; $4,773 average in-state tuition
San Diego State University
Four or more years; Public; $17,622 average out-state tuition; $5,742 average in-state tuition
The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley
Four or more years; Public; $16,079 average out-state tuition; $6,119 average in-state tuition
University of Arizona
Four or more years; Public; $31,067 average out-state tuition; $10,262 average in-state tuition
University of Georgia
Four or more years; Public; $28,126 average out-state tuition; $9,552 average in-state tuition
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
Four or more years; Public; $48,814 average out-state tuition; $15,433 average in-state tuition

Scholarships for Spanish Language And Literature Majors

name award deadline

Honors Scholarship - The College of New Rochelle

The College of New Rochelle

Up to $25,000 Varies See Details

Honors Scholarship - The College of New Rochelle

The College of New Rochelle

award

Up to $25,000

deadline

Varies
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Dean's Scholarship - The College of New Rochelle

The College of New Rochelle

$14,000 Varies See Details

Dean's Scholarship - The College of New Rochelle

The College of New Rochelle

award

$14,000

deadline

Varies
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City of New Rochelle Resident Award

The College of New Rochelle

Up to $9,000 Varies See Details

City of New Rochelle Resident Award

The College of New Rochelle

award

Up to $9,000

deadline

Varies
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Catholic High School Graduate Award

The College of New Rochelle

Up to $9,000 Varies See Details

Catholic High School Graduate Award

The College of New Rochelle

award

Up to $9,000

deadline

Varies
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Merit Transfer Scholarship - The College of New Rochelle

The College of New Rochelle

Up to $11,500 Varies See Details

Merit Transfer Scholarship - The College of New Rochelle

The College of New Rochelle

award

Up to $11,500

deadline

Varies
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St. Angela Award

The College of New Rochelle

Up to $7,000 Varies See Details

St. Angela Award

The College of New Rochelle

award

Up to $7,000

deadline

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Holzbock Humanities Scholarship

Oakland University

$3,000 Varies See Details

Holzbock Humanities Scholarship

Oakland University

award

$3,000

deadline

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Sue C. Mardis Foreign Language Scholarship

Western Michigan University

$2,500 Varies See Details

Sue C. Mardis Foreign Language Scholarship

Western Michigan University

award

$2,500

deadline

Varies
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President's Award for Study Abroad in Spanish - WMU

Western Michigan University

$2,500 Varies See Details

President's Award for Study Abroad in Spanish - WMU

Western Michigan University

award

$2,500

deadline

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Myrna Lee Sprengler Memorial Scholarship

University of Iowa, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

$2,500 Varies See Details

Myrna Lee Sprengler Memorial Scholarship

University of Iowa, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

award

$2,500

deadline

Varies
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