Russian Language And Literature

Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature. The roots of Russian literature can be traced to the Middle Ages, when epics and chronicles in Old East Slavic were composed. By the Age of Enlightenment, literature had grown in importance, and from the early 1830s, Russian literature underwent an astounding golden age in poetry, prose and drama. Romanticism permitted a flowering of poetic talent: Vasily Zhukovsky and later his protégé Alexander Pushkin came to the fore. Prose was flourishing as well. The first great Russian novelist was Nikolai Gogol. Then came Ivan Turgenev, who mastered both short stories and novels. Leo Tolstoy and Fyodor Dostoevsky soon became internationally renowned. In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in short stories and became a leading dramatist. The beginning of the 20th century ranks as the Silver Age of Russian poetry. The poets most often associated with the "Silver Age" are Konstantin Balmont, Valery Bryusov, Alexander Blok, Anna Akhmatova, Nikolay Gumilyov, Osip Mandelstam, Sergei Yesenin, Vladimir Mayakovsky, Marina Tsvetaeva and Boris Pasternak. This era produced some first-rate novelists and short-story writers, such as Aleksandr Kuprin, Nobel Prize winner Ivan Bunin, Leonid Andreyev, Fyodor Sologub, Aleksey Remizov, Yevgeny Zamyatin, Dmitry Merezhkovsky and Andrei Bely.

After the Revolution of 1917, Russian literature split into Soviet and white émigré parts. While the Soviet Union assured universal literacy and a highly developed book printing industry, it also enforced ideological censorship. In the 1930s Socialist realism became the predominant trend in Russia. Its leading figure was Maxim Gorky, who laid the foundations of this style. Nikolay Ostrovsky's novel How the Steel Was Tempered has been among the most successful works of Russian literature. Alexander Fadeyev achieved success in Russia. Various émigré writers, such as poets Vladislav Khodasevich, Georgy Ivanov and Vyacheslav Ivanov; novelists such as Mark Aldanov, Gaito Gazdanov and Vladimir Nabokov; and short story Nobel Prize-winning writer Ivan Bunin, continued to write in exile. Some writers dared to oppose Soviet ideology, like Nobel Prize-winning novelist Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, who wrote about life in the gulag camps. The Khrushchev Thaw brought some fresh wind to literature and poetry became a mass cultural phenomenon. This "thaw" did not last long; in the 1970s, some of the most prominent authors were banned from publishing and prosecuted for their anti-Soviet sentiments.

The end of the 20th century was a difficult period for Russian literature, with few distinct voices. Among the most discussed authors of this period were Victor Pelevin, who gained popularity with short stories and novels, novelist and playwright Vladimir Sorokin, and the poet Dmitri Prigov. In the 21st century, a new generation of Russian authors appeared, differing greatly from the postmodernist Russian prose of the late 20th century, which lead critics to speak about "new realism".

Russian authors have significantly contributed to numerous literary genres. Russia has five Nobel Prize in literature laureates. As of 2011, Russia was the fourth largest book producer in the world in terms of published titles. A popular folk saying claims Russians are "the world's most reading nation".

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Matching Russian Language And Literature Colleges

Brigham Young University-Provo

Four or more years; Private not for profit; $5,460 average out-state tuition; $5,460 average in-state tuition

University of Missouri-Columbia

Four or more years; Public; $25,179 average out-state tuition; $8,460 average in-state tuition

Ohio State University-Main Campus

Four or more years; Public; $28,822 average out-state tuition; $9,718 average in-state tuition

University of Arizona

Four or more years; Public; $31,067 average out-state tuition; $10,262 average in-state tuition

Portland State University

Four or more years; Public; $24,750 average out-state tuition; $7,403 average in-state tuition

University of Wisconsin-Madison

Four or more years; Public; $33,523 average out-state tuition; $9,273 average in-state tuition

University of South Florida-Main Campus

Four or more years; Public; $15,473 average out-state tuition; $4,559 average in-state tuition

Scholarships for Russian Language And Literature Majors

Bullet name award deadline Link
 

Boren Fellowship

National Security Education Program

Up to $24,000 January 27, 2021 See Details
 

Boren Fellowship

National Security Education Program

award

Up to $24,000

deadline

January 27, 2021
See Details
 

Marjorie Skiff Rose Scholarship

University of Colorado Boulder

$6,640 March 13, 2021 See Details
 

Marjorie Skiff Rose Scholarship

University of Colorado Boulder

award

$6,640

deadline

March 13, 2021
See Details
 

Shoe-Smith Scholarship

University of Colorado Boulder

$4,000 March 13, 2021 See Details
 

Shoe-Smith Scholarship

University of Colorado Boulder

award

$4,000

deadline

March 13, 2021
See Details
 

Alan and Jan Pauw Family Scholarship

Calvin College

$2,800 February 01, 2021 See Details
 

Alan and Jan Pauw Family Scholarship

Calvin College

award

$2,800

deadline

February 01, 2021
See Details
 

Myrna Lee Sprengler Memorial Scholarship

University of Iowa, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

$2,500 Varies See Details
 

Myrna Lee Sprengler Memorial Scholarship

University of Iowa, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

award

$2,500

deadline

Varies
See Details
 

William and Effa McMeans Scholarship

University of Iowa, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

$2,000 Varies See Details
 

William and Effa McMeans Scholarship

University of Iowa, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences

award

$2,000

deadline

Varies
See Details
 

Arts and Science Alumni Affiliate Scholarship - Oakland University

Oakland University

$2,000 Varies See Details
 

Arts and Science Alumni Affiliate Scholarship - Oakland University

Oakland University

award

$2,000

deadline

Varies
See Details
 

Robert T. and Charlotte F. Otten Scholarship

Calvin College

$1,800 February 01, 2021 See Details
 

Robert T. and Charlotte F. Otten Scholarship

Calvin College

award

$1,800

deadline

February 01, 2021
See Details
 

Asa Iokepa de Neeve Aloha Memorial Scholarship

University of Colorado Boulder

$1,500 March 13, 2021 See Details
 

Asa Iokepa de Neeve Aloha Memorial Scholarship

University of Colorado Boulder

award

$1,500

deadline

March 13, 2021
See Details
 

Doug and Dianne Taylor Scholarship

University of Montana, Missoula - College of Arts and Sciences

$1,100 Varies See Details
 

Doug and Dianne Taylor Scholarship

University of Montana, Missoula - College of Arts and Sciences

award

$1,100

deadline

Varies
See Details