Mound Bayou is a city in Bolivar County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 1,533 at the 2010 census, down from 2,102 in 2000. It is notable for having been founded as an independent black community in 1887 by former slaves led by Isaiah Montgomery.
Mound Bayou has a 98.6 percent African-American majority population, one of the largest of any community in the United States. The current mayor of Mound Bayou is Darryl R. Johnson.