New Houlka (/ˈhʌlkə/) is a town in Chickasaw County, Mississippi, United States. It was founded in 1904 to take advantage of a railway line of the Gulf and Ship Island Railroad. Residents moved their buildings over from the original settlement, now referred to as "Old Houlka", located to the west. The population was 626 at the 2010 census.
Started around a fur trading post prior to 1794, Old Houlka is the oldest surviving settlement in north Mississippi. In the 19th century, much of the land was developed for cotton plantations and the market town did good business.