Canehill (formerly Cane Hill and Boonsboro) is an unincorporated community in Washington County, Arkansas, United States. The community is located in the Ozark Mountains on the outskirts of the Northwest Arkansas metropolitan area. One of the most historic communities in the state, Canehill contains seventeen listings on the National Register of Historic Places (NRHP). The Cane Hill College began operations in 1834, which led to the rapid growth and development of the community as a center of higher education. The college and community suffered during the Civil War, and was bypassed by the railroad, which chose a route through Lincoln. Recently, restoration and preservation of many historic buildings has been undertaken by a nonprofit organization, Historic Cane Hill Inc.