Plant Sciences

Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist, plant scientist or phytologist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term "botany" comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning "pasture", "grass", or "fodder"; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), "to feed" or "to graze". Traditionally, botany has also included the study of fungi and algae by mycologists and phycologists respectively, with the study of these three groups of organisms remaining within the sphere of interest of the International Botanical Congress. Nowadays, botanists (in the strict sense) study approximately 410,000 species of land plants of which some 391,000 species are vascular plants (including ca 369,000 species of flowering plants), and ca 20,000 are bryophytes.

Botany originated in prehistory as herbalism with the efforts of early humans to identify – and later cultivate – edible, medicinal and poisonous plants, making it one of the oldest branches of science. Medieval physic gardens, often attached to monasteries, contained plants of medical importance. They were forerunners of the first botanical gardens attached to universities, founded from the 1540s onwards. One of the earliest was the Padua botanical garden. These gardens facilitated the academic study of plants. Efforts to catalogue and describe their collections were the beginnings of plant taxonomy, and led in 1753 to the binomial system of Carl Linnaeus that remains in use to this day.

In the 19th and 20th centuries, new techniques were developed for the study of plants, including methods of optical microscopy and live cell imaging, electron microscopy, analysis of chromosome number, plant chemistry and the structure and function of enzymes and other proteins. In the last two decades of the 20th century, botanists exploited the techniques of molecular genetic analysis, including genomics and proteomics and DNA sequences to classify plants more accurately.

Modern botany is a broad, multidisciplinary subject with inputs from most other areas of science and technology. Research topics include the study of plant structure, growth and differentiation, reproduction, biochemistry and primary metabolism, chemical products, development, diseases, evolutionary relationships, systematics, and plant taxonomy. Dominant themes in 21st century plant science are molecular genetics and epigenetics, which are the mechanisms and control of gene expression during differentiation of plant cells and tissues. Botanical research has diverse applications in providing staple foods, materials such as timber, oil, rubber, fibre and drugs, in modern horticulture, agriculture and forestry, plant propagation, breeding and genetic modification, in the synthesis of chemicals and raw materials for construction and energy production, in environmental management, and the maintenance of biodiversity.

* Description and images provided by Wikipedia under CC-BY-SA 3.0 license .

Matching Plant Sciences Colleges

Scholarships for Plant Sciences Majors

Bullet name award deadline Link

Churchill Scholarship

Winston Churchill Foundation of the United States

Up to $60,000 November 02, 2020 See Details

Churchill Scholarship

Winston Churchill Foundation of the United States

award

Up to $60,000

deadline

November 02, 2020
See Details

Bess Heflin Fellowship

University of Texas at Austin, Office of Graduate Studies

$19,000 Varies See Details

Bess Heflin Fellowship

University of Texas at Austin, Office of Graduate Studies

award

$19,000

deadline

Varies
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Diversity in Food and Natural Resources Scholarship

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

Up to $15,000 Varies See Details

Diversity in Food and Natural Resources Scholarship

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

award

Up to $15,000

deadline

Varies
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Paul A. Funk Foundation Incoming Freshman Scholarship

Illinois State University - College of Applied Science and Technology

$3,000 Varies See Details

Paul A. Funk Foundation Incoming Freshman Scholarship

Illinois State University - College of Applied Science and Technology

award

$3,000

deadline

Varies
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Total Landscape Care Scholarship Contest

Total Landscape Care

$2,500 Varies See Details

Total Landscape Care Scholarship Contest

Total Landscape Care

award

$2,500

deadline

Varies
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San Antonio Livestock Exposition Scholarship

Sam Houston State University - College of Arts and Sciences

$2,500 Varies See Details

San Antonio Livestock Exposition Scholarship

Sam Houston State University - College of Arts and Sciences

award

$2,500

deadline

Varies
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Kenneth R. Imig Scholarship

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of ACES

$2,500 Varies See Details

Kenneth R. Imig Scholarship

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of ACES

award

$2,500

deadline

Varies
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Charles Ennis Rice Agricultural Scholarship

Arizona Western College

Up to $2,500 Varies See Details

Charles Ennis Rice Agricultural Scholarship

Arizona Western College

award

Up to $2,500

deadline

Varies
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Joseph R. Payne, Jr. Memorial Scholarship

Oklahoma State University-College of Ag. Science and Natural Resources

$2,000 Varies See Details

Joseph R. Payne, Jr. Memorial Scholarship

Oklahoma State University-College of Ag. Science and Natural Resources

award

$2,000

deadline

Varies
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J. Fielding Reed/Georgia Plant Food Educational Society Scholarship

Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College

$1,500 Varies See Details

J. Fielding Reed/Georgia Plant Food Educational Society Scholarship

Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College

award

$1,500

deadline

Varies
See Details