Riley, Oregon is an unincorporated community in Harney County, Oregon, United States, located at the crossroads of U.S. Highway 395 and U.S. Highway 20, milepost 104, about 28 miles (45 km) west of Burns, the seat of Harney County. The elevation of Riley is 4,226 feet (1,288 m). The town presently consists entirely of two service establishments with attached apartments: a post office, and a general store with gas pump and garage service. It exists to serve highway travelers, and the rural farming and ranching community that surrounds it.
Farmers grow alfalfa, hay, and root crops.
The town springs from the establishment of a post office in about 1885, which was named for stockman Amos Riley of the ranching partnership Riley and Hardin. There was a Hardin post office located 75 miles (121 km) northwest of Riley, so the people who lived along Silver Creek suggested the new post office be called Riley. Riley's post office closed in 1919, but was reopened in 1949 after an office called Suntex was closed.
The Oregon Department of Transportation has a camera for road and weather conditions located at the intersection of U.S. 20 and U.S. 395 in Riley, facing west-northwest.