Oil Trough is a town in Independence County, Arkansas, United States. The population was 260 at the 2010 census. The town is believed to have acquired its name in the early 19th century from a trough used to render bear fat, which was sold to customers in New Orleans. Oil Trough has been noted for its unusual place name.
Odell Pollard, a retired attorney from Searcy and the Arkansas Republican Party chairman from 1966–1970, graduated from Oil Trough High School.