Muleshoe is a city in Bailey County, Texas, United States. The town of Muleshoe was founded in 1913 when the Pecos and Northern Texas Railway built an 88-mile (142 km) line from Farwell, Texas, to Lubbock through northern Bailey County. In 1926, Muleshoe was incorporated. The population was 5,158 at the 2010 census. The county seat of Bailey County, it is home to the National Mule Memorial.
The Muleshoe Heritage Center located off the combined U.S. Routes 70 and 84 is a popular museum which commemorates the importance of ranching to West Texas. The complex has several unique buildings originally from Bailey County that display the living conditions of the area in the late-19th century and the early to mid-20th century.
The Muleshoe National Wildlife Refuge is located some 20 mi (32 km) to the south on State Highway 214. Founded in 1935, the refuge is the oldest of its kind in the state of Texas. It is a 5,000-acre (20 km2) wintering area for migratory waterfowl flying from Canada to Mexico. It contains the largest number of sandhill cranes in North America.