Harlowton is a city and is the county seat of Wheatland County, Montana, United States. The population was 997 at the 2010 census. The city was once the eastern terminus of electric operations (1914–74) for the "Pacific Extension" of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad ("Milwaukee Road"). Here, steam or diesel locomotives were changed or hooked up to electric locomotives for 438-mile (705 km) trip through the Rocky Mountains to Avery, Idaho. Harlowton was founded in 1900 as a station stop on the Montana Railroad, a predecessor to the Milwaukee, and was named for Richard A. Harlow, the Montana Railroad's president.
The area around Harlowton is rich in agriculture, the leading products being wheat, barley, cattle, sheep and honey bees. Major employers are Wheatland Memorial Healthcare, Harlowton High School, Hillcrest Elementary School, Musselshell Ranger District, Midtown Market 2 Grocery Store, Rays Sport and Western Wear, Cream of the West, Rocky Mountain Cookware, TicketPrinting.com, and the Judith Gap Wind Farm. The local newspaper is the Times Clarion.
Harlowton is surrounded by the Crazy, Little Belt and Big Snowy Mountains, which are a part of the Lewis and Clark National Forest. The National Forest offers plenty of acreage for recreational activities; camping, sight-seeing, hunting, OHV riding, snowmobiling, etc. Fishing access sites are located along the Musselshell River or at nearby Deadman’s Basin or Martinsdale Reservoir. There are three parks located within Harlowton: Chief Joseph Park, Deer Park, and Fischer Park. The old Milwaukee Railroad track bed has been converted into the “Smoking Boomer” trail. Of special interest are the pioneer bronze sculpture, entitled 'And They Called the Land Montana' and the Veteran’s Honor Wall located in front of the Wheatland County Court House.
The Rodeo, Wheatland County Youth Fair, and Harlowton Kiwanis Show are annual events that take place in Harlowton. Area attractions include the Upper Musselshell Museum, Milwaukee Depot Museum, and Jawbone Creek Country Club. There is a public library, pool, theater, airport, and rifle range. Within 100 miles are the Nez Perce National Historic Trail, Charles M. Bair Museum, and Showdown Ski Area.