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Canadian History

The history of Canada covers the period from the arrival of Paleo-Indians thousands of years ago to the present day. Prior to European colonization, the lands encompassing present-day Canada were inhabited for millennia by Indigenous peoples, with distinct trade networks, spiritual beliefs, and styles of social organization. Some of these older civilizations had long faded by the time of the first European arrivals and have been discovered through archaeological investigations.

Starting in the late 15th century, French and British expeditions explored, colonized, and fought over various places within North America in what constitutes present-day Canada. The colony of New France was established in 1534 and was ceded to the United Kingdom in 1763 after the French defeat in the Seven Years' War. The now British Province of Quebec was divided into Upper and Lower Canada in 1791 and reunified in 1841. In 1867, the Province of Canada was joined with two other British colonies of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia through Confederation, forming a self-governing entity named Canada. The new dominion expanded by incorporating other parts of British North America, finishing with Newfoundland and Labrador in 1949.

Although responsible government had existed in Canada since 1848, Britain continued to set its foreign and defence policies until the end of the First World War. The passing of the Statute of Westminster in 1931 recognized that Canada had become co-equal with the United Kingdom. After the Constitution was patriated in 1982, the final vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament were removed. Canada currently consists of ten provinces and three territories and is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy with Queen Elizabeth II as its head of state.

Over centuries, elements of Indigenous, French, British and more recent immigrant customs have combined to form a Canadian culture that has also been strongly influenced by its linguistic, geographic and economic neighbour, the United States. Since the conclusion of the Second World War, Canadians have supported multi-lateralism abroad and socioeconomic development domestically.

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Bess Heflin Fellowship

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$19,000 Varies See Details

Bess Heflin Fellowship

University of Texas at Austin, Office of Graduate Studies

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$19,000

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Ray and Betty Ramseyer Scholarship

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Up to $5,000 Varies See Details

Ray and Betty Ramseyer Scholarship

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Emil A. Erickson Memorial Scholarship

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$3,500

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Holzbock Humanities Scholarship

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$3,000

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Sven Peterson Memorial Scholarship - UCSD

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Sven Peterson Memorial Scholarship - UCSD

University of California, San Diego

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Robert W. Carithers Scholarship for Arts and Humanities

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Robert Edward Drayer Scholarship

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Robert Edward Drayer Scholarship

West Chester University

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Hilda and Harold McCleave Endowed Scholarship

Montana State University-Billings

$1,500 February 01, 2020 See Details

Hilda and Harold McCleave Endowed Scholarship

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Old Settlers Association J.N. Dixon History Scholarship

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Old Settlers Association J.N. Dixon History Scholarship

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William A. Renzi Memorial Scholarship

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William A. Renzi Memorial Scholarship

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