Artificial Intelligence | Fastweb

Artificial Intelligence

In computer science, Artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, in contrast to the natural intelligence displayed by humans and other animals. Computer science defines AI research as the study of "intelligent agents": any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. More in detail, Kaplan and Haenlein define AI as “a system’s ability to correctly interpret external data, to learn from such data, and to use those learnings to achieve specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation”. Colloquially, the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".

The scope of AI is disputed: as machines become increasingly capable, tasks considered as requiring "intelligence" are often removed from the definition, a phenomenon known as the AI effect, leading to the quip in Tesler's Theorem, "AI is whatever hasn't been done yet." For instance, optical character recognition is frequently excluded from "artificial intelligence", having become a routine technology. Modern machine capabilities generally classified as AI include successfully understanding human speech, competing at the highest level in strategic game systems (such as chess and Go), autonomously operating cars, and intelligent routing in content delivery networks and military simulations.

Borrowing from the management literature, Kaplan and Haenlein classify artificial intelligence into three different types of AI systems: analytical, human-inspired, and humanized artificial intelligence. Analytical AI has only characteristics consistent with cognitive intelligence generating cognitive representation of the world and using learning based on past experience to inform future decisions. Human-inspired AI has elements from cognitive as well as emotional intelligence, understanding, in addition to cognitive elements, also human emotions considering them in their decision making. Humanized AI shows characteristics of all types of competencies (i.e., cognitive, emotional, and social intelligence), able to be self-conscious and self-aware in interactions with others.

Artificial intelligence was founded as an academic discipline in 1956, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an "AI winter"), followed by new approaches, success and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. "robotics" or "machine learning"), the use of particular tools ("logic" or artificial neural networks), or deep philosophical differences. Subfields have also been based on social factors (particular institutions or the work of particular researchers).

The traditional problems (or goals) of AI research include reasoning, knowledge representation, planning, learning, natural language processing, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence is among the field's long-term goals. Approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence, and traditional symbolic AI. Many tools are used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, artificial neural networks, and methods based on statistics, probability and economics. The AI field draws upon computer science, information engineering, mathematics, psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and many others.

The field was founded on the claim that human intelligence "can be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it". This raises philosophical arguments about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings endowed with human-like intelligence which are issues that have been explored by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Some people also consider AI to be a danger to humanity if it progresses unabated. Others believe that AI, unlike previous technological revolutions, will create a risk of mass unemployment.

In the twenty-first century, AI techniques have experienced a resurgence following concurrent advances in computer power, large amounts of data, and theoretical understanding; and AI techniques have become an essential part of the technology industry, helping to solve many challenging problems in computer science, software engineering and operations research.

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Matching Artificial Intelligence Colleges

Carnegie Mellon University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $52,732 average out-state tuition; $52,732 average in-state tuition
University of Pennsylvania
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $47,416 average out-state tuition; $47,416 average in-state tuition
University of Washington-Seattle Campus
Four or more years; Public; $34,473 average out-state tuition; $9,909 average in-state tuition
Brandeis University
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $51,460 average out-state tuition; $51,460 average in-state tuition
Full Sail University
Four or more years; Private for profit; $19,929 average out-state tuition; $19,929 average in-state tuition
University of Southern California
Four or more years; Private not for profit; $53,448 average out-state tuition; $53,448 average in-state tuition
University of Georgia
Four or more years; Public; $28,126 average out-state tuition; $9,552 average in-state tuition

Scholarships for Artificial Intelligence Majors

name award deadline

Jeffrey and Lily Chen Undergraduate Scholarship

University of Maryland, College Park - College of CMPS

$10,000 Varies See Details

Jeffrey and Lily Chen Undergraduate Scholarship

University of Maryland, College Park - College of CMPS

award

$10,000

deadline

Varies
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Information Technology and Design Advantage Scholarship - University of Montana, Montana Tech

University of Montana at Montana Tech

$6,700 Varies See Details

Information Technology and Design Advantage Scholarship - University of Montana, Montana Tech

University of Montana at Montana Tech

award

$6,700

deadline

Varies
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Computer Science Advantage Scholarship - University of Montana, Montana Tech

University of Montana at Montana Tech

$6,700 Varies See Details

Computer Science Advantage Scholarship - University of Montana, Montana Tech

University of Montana at Montana Tech

award

$6,700

deadline

Varies
See Details

Montana Minds Scholarship - University of Montana, Montana Tech

University of Montana at Montana Tech

$6,000 Varies See Details

Montana Minds Scholarship - University of Montana, Montana Tech

University of Montana at Montana Tech

award

$6,000

deadline

Varies
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Hearst Foundation Scholarship - UWM

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee - College of Engineering/App. Sci.

Up to $14,000 Varies See Details

Hearst Foundation Scholarship - UWM

University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee - College of Engineering/App. Sci.

award

Up to $14,000

deadline

Varies
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Glen E. Ullyot Scholarship

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

$6,000 Varies See Details

Glen E. Ullyot Scholarship

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

award

$6,000

deadline

Varies
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Norman Family Scholarship

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

$5,000 Varies See Details

Norman Family Scholarship

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

award

$5,000

deadline

Varies
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Lockheed Martin Power Scholarship

Boise State University - College of Arts and Science

$3,000 Varies See Details

Lockheed Martin Power Scholarship

Boise State University - College of Arts and Science

award

$3,000

deadline

Varies
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ExxonMobil/PTEC Scholarship - Baton Rouge Community College

Baton Rouge Community College

Up to $4,500 Varies See Details

ExxonMobil/PTEC Scholarship - Baton Rouge Community College

Baton Rouge Community College

award

Up to $4,500

deadline

Varies
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George S. Sitaramiah Scholarship

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

$2,500 Varies See Details

George S. Sitaramiah Scholarship

University of Minnesota, Twin Cities

award

$2,500

deadline

Varies
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