Cardiovascular technologists and technicians (similar but not the same as a Cardiac Physiologists in the UK) assist physicians in diagnosing and treating cardiac (heart) and peripheral vascular (blood vessel) ailments. Cardiovascular technologists may specialize in any of three areas of practice: invasive cardiology, echocardiography, and vascular technology. Cardiovascular technicians who specialize in electrocardiograms (EKGs), stress testing, and Holter monitors are known as cardiographic technicians, or EKG technicians.
Cardiovascular technologists specializing in invasive procedures are called invasive cardiovascular technologists. They assist physicians with cardiac catheterization procedures in which a small tube, or catheter, is threaded through a patientâ€™s artery from a spot on the patientâ€™s groin to the heart. The procedure can determine whether a blockage exists in the blood vessels that supply the heart muscle. The procedure also can help to diagnose other problems. Part of the procedure may involve balloon angioplasty and/or stenting, which can be used to treat blockages of blood vessels or heart valves without the need for heart surgery.
Invasive cardiovascular technologists assist physicians as they insert a catheter with a balloon on the end to the point of the obstruction. Invasive cardiovascular technologists prepare patients for cardiac catheterization and balloon angioplasty by first positioning them on an examining table and then shaving, cleaning, and administering anesthesia to the top of their leg near the groin. During the procedures, they monitor patientsâ€™ blood pressure and heart rate via EKG, blood pressure, and SPO2 and notify the physician if something appears to be wrong. Technologists also may prepare and monitor patients during open-heart surgery and during the insertion of pacemakers and stents that open up blockages in arteries to the heart and major blood vessels.
Technologists who use ultrasound to examine the heart chambers, valves, and vessels are referred to as cardiac sonographers. They use ultrasound instrumentation to create images called echocardiograms. An echocardiogram may be performed while the patient is either resting or physically active. Technologists may administer medication to physically active patients to assess their heart function. Cardiac sonographers also may assist physicians who perform transesophageal echocardiography, which involves placing a tube in the patientâ€™s esophagus to obtain ultrasound images.
Those who assist physicians in the diagnosis of disorders affecting the circulation are known as vascular technologists, vascular specialists or vascular sonographers. They perform a medical history, evaluate pulses and assess blood flow in arteries and veins by listening to the vascular flow sounds for abnormalities. Then they perform a noninvasive procedure using ultrasound instrumentation to record vascular information such as vascular blood flow, blood pressure, changes in limb volume, oxygen saturation, cerebral circulation, peripheral circulation, and abdominal circulation. Many of these tests are performed during or immediately after surgery.
Cardiovascular technicians who obtain EKGs are known as electrocardiograph (or EKG) technicians. To take a basic EKG, which traces electrical impulses transmitted by the heart, technicians attach electrodes to the patientâ€™s chest, arms, and legs, and then manipulate switches on an EKG machine to obtain a reading. An EKG is printed out for interpretation by the physician. This test is done before most kinds of surgery or as part of a routine physical examination, especially on persons who have reached middle age or who have a history of cardiovascular problems.
EKG technicians with advanced training perform Holter monitor and stress testing. For Holter monitoring, technicians place electrodes on the patientâ€™s chest and attach a portable EKG monitor to the patientâ€™s belt. Following 24 or more hours of normal activity by the patient, the technician removes a tape from the monitor and places it in a scanner. After checking the quality of the recorded impulses on an electronic screen, the technician usually prints the information from the tape for analysis by a physician. Physicians use the output from the scanner to diagnose heart ailments, such as heart rhythm abnormalities or problems with pacemakers.
For a treadmill stress test, EKG technicians document the patientâ€™s medical history, explain the procedure, connect the patient to an EKG monitor, and obtain a baseline reading and resting blood pressure. Next, they monitor the heartâ€™s performance while the patient is walking on a treadmill, gradually increasing the treadmillâ€™s speed to observe the effect of increased exertion. Like vascular technologists and cardiac sonographers, cardiographic technicians who perform EKG, Holter monitor, and stress tests are known as â€œnoninvasiveâ€ technicians.
Education / Training
In the US most cases cardiovascular technologists undergo two year accredited associate degree in cardiovascular technology. Most then go on to take board examinations offered by Cardiovascular Credentialing International to obtain their RCIS (Registered Cardiovascular Invasive Technologist) credentials.
In the UK cardiac physiologists undergo 4 degree bachelor at a UK university. Registration is currently voluntary under the auspice of Registration Council of Clinical Physiologists. Cardiac Physiologists have actively pursue state registration (licensure) for years. The UK HPC approved there bid in 2003 but this yet is to become law.
EKG/ECG Technician normally don't undergo formally training and learn on the job. However, in recent years, one to two year certificate and diploma courses are available in both the US and UK.
Matching Cardiovascular Technologist Colleges
Central Florida Institute
At least 2 but less than 4 years; Private for profit
Community College of the Air Force
At least 2 but less than 4 years; Public; $0 average out-state tuition; $0 average in-state tuition
Santa Fe College
Four or more years; Public; $7,362 average out-state tuition; $1,840 average in-state tuition
At least 2 but less than 4 years; Private for profit; $12,647 average out-state tuition; $12,647 average in-state tuition
Kirtland Community College
At least 2 but less than 4 years; Public; $5,940 average out-state tuition; $3,570 average in-state tuition
At least 2 but less than 4 years; Public; $6,554 average out-state tuition; $1,044 average in-state tuition
Daymar College-Bowling Green
Four or more years; Private for profit; $15,600 average out-state tuition; $15,600 average in-state tuition
Cardiovascular Technologist Scholarships
|SDMS Foundation Sonography Student Scholarship||$2,500||December 31, 2017|
|Nursing and Health Related Scholarship - SFC||$1,600||December 01, 2017|
|Lillian Stump Nursing and Health Related Scholarship||$1,600||December 01, 2017|
|Colonel R. James Glikes Memorial Scholarship||$1,600||December 01, 2017|
|Dr. Frank Veden Endowed Scholarship||$1,200||December 31, 2017|
|Germaine K. Queen Scholarship||$400||June 01, 2018|
|Donald E. Caswell Memorial Scholarship||$300||March 01, 2018|
|SIKHS Serving America, Inc. Scholarship||Varies||December 01, 2017|
|Nina Royce McGraw Memorial Scholarship||Varies||December 01, 2017|
|Dr. Steve and Dee Ann Stults Scholarship||Varies||December 01, 2017|
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