Clark University is a private research university and liberal arts college in Worcester, Massachusetts. Founded in 1887, it is the oldest educational institution founded as an all-graduate university. Clark now also educates undergraduates. In 2013, Clark University was ranked 83 in the United States according to World Report U.S. News & World Report. This was an improvement compared to 2012, where Clark was ranked 95. In 2013, Forbes ranked Clark University #51 in research. It is one of only three New England universities, along with Harvard and Yale, to be a founding member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of universities with the most prestigious profiles in research and graduate education. Clark withdrew its membership in 1999, citing a conflict with its mission; it is one of only four schools to do so. Clark is one of 40 schools profiled in the book Colleges That Change Lives by Loren Pope.