Shelby is a village in Polk County, Nebraska, United States. The population was 714 at the 2010 census. Shelby lies along the north side of U.S. Highway 81 near the eastern edge of Polk County. It is six miles (10 km) east of Osceola, and just 17 miles (27 km) south and three miles (5 km) west of Columbus. Nebraska's center of population is near Shelby.