Elaine (pronounced locally with the accent on the first syllable) is a very small city in Phillips County, Arkansas, United States, in the delta of the Mississippi River. The population was 865 at the 2000 census.
It is best known as the location of the Elaine massacre of September 30–October 1, 1919, in which an estimated 237 Black people were killed in the rural county by rampaging white mobs. Five whites died in the events. This was one of the worst incidents of racial and labor violence in American history. Black sharecroppers were attempting to organize a farmers' union, which the planters resisted.