Walpole is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States and also encompasses the entirely distinct entity of Walpole (CDP), with its much smaller area of 2.9 square miles and smaller population of 5,198 at the 2010 census. Walpole Town, as the Census refers to the actual town, is located about 13 miles (21 km) south of Downtown Boston and 23.5 miles (37.8 km) north of Providence, Rhode Island. The population was 24,070 at the 2010 census. Walpole was first settled in 1659 and was considered a part of Dedham until officially incorporated in 1724. The town was named after Sir Robert Walpole, de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.