Brookeville is a town in Montgomery County, Maryland, located 20 km (12 mi) north of Washington, D.C., and 2 km (1.2 mi) north of Olney. Brookeville was settled by Quakers late in the 18th century and was formally incorporated as a town in 1808. Historically part of the local agricultural industry, since the 1950s Brookeville has developed rapidly into a suburban community of Washington, D.C. following the construction of the Georgia Avenue toll road. The population was 134 at the 2010 census.
Brookeville is notable as the "United States Capital for a Day" during the War of 1812 when British troops burned Washington D.C., and President James Madison sought refuge in Brookeville on August 26, 1814. During the American Civil War, Brookeville, along with nearby Sandy Spring, was a stop on the underground railroad.